haematological effects among silk screening workers exposed to 2-ethoxy ethyl acetate
Ethanol acetate (2-EEA)
It is a solvent with a wide range of industrial and commercial applications.
It is reported to cause blood toxicity, infertility and deformity.
Purpose: Study 2-
Methods: Workers from one silk screening shop (
M, manual print line.
High exposure areas include automatic and manual print lines.
Low exposure and indirect exposure areas including sensitivity, design, product preparation and cutting chamber. The non-
The exposed administrative office is isolated from high and low exposed areas.
Doors are usually closed during working hours.
This silk screening store has 15 printing production lines.
4 are automatic and 11 are manual.
The printer must mix the solvent with the ink every day and clean the printing machine with the solvent.
The output of the automatic printing production line is much higher than that of the manual printing production line.
Heavy physical labor
Loading, lifting and moving of compiled screen pieces-
Automatic printing is required on the production line.
Therefore, the automatic printing line is mainly operated by male workers (
15/17 of men)
The manual printing line is mainly operated by female employees (
10/12 of women).
On the automatic printing production line, workers spend 70% of their working time in the control room where fresh air is supplied.
For hand-printed production lines, workers spend eight hours a day on the printing machine.
New design samples and small and complex pictures are usually tested or printed by a manual Press.
As a result, manual printing often requires finer skills and requires cleaning the screen more frequently, resulting in high solvent exposure.
The main components of the screen cleaning solvent are 2-EEA.
Amount of 2-
The EEA used in this factory is about 1000 kg euros per month.
These workers may be exposed to a small amount of isotinone (MIBK), and toluene.
Qualitative confirmation of 2-
The Institute of Occupational Safety and Health tested EEA, toluene and MIBK in raw solvent and randomly selected air samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (IOSH)
An accredited laboratory of the American Institute of Industrial Health in Taiwan.
Neither Laboratory detected benzene in raw materials or in air samples.
The data collection questionnaire is used to collect personal features and personal habits (
Drinking and smoking, for example)
History of fertility, history of disease and medicine, detailed career history and related symptoms.
About 10 ml blood samples were collected from each worker for blood and biochemical tests.
The blood parameters examined were: hemoglobin, packaged cell volume, white blood cells (WBC)
Red blood cells (RBC)
The mean volume of neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets and red blood cells (MCV)
Average red blood cell hemoglobin (MCH)
Average hemoglobin concentration of red blood cells (MCHC).
44 blood samples randomly selected were separated and sent to the second hospital for hemoglobin analysis to confirm the quality control procedure.
The hemoglobin results from the laboratories of the two reference clinics are closely related (
Deviation 95% CI :(−0. 22 to −0. 06 mmol/l);
95% CI of lower LOA :(−0. 77 to −0. 58 mmol/l);
95% CI on LOA :(0. 25 to 0. 53 mmol/l).
Air concentration for environmental monitoring 2-
The silk screening shop\'s EEA was surveyed by personal sampling.
8 hours sampling using a passive sampler of 3 M 3500.
Weighted average of 14 8 hours (TWA)
Samples were collected for 29 highly exposed workers in the printing department and for 26 workers randomly selected in the photosensitive, design, product preparation, crop room and administrative office.
Twelve uniformly distributed eight-hour fixed-point samples were collected in four rooms (
Three samples per room)
And 5 samples were collected in the administrative office.
The passive badge is then parsed in 1.
Mixed solvent 5 ml of 95: 5 (v/v)
Methanol and methanol.
After shaking for 40 minutes, 2-
Analysis of EEA using gas chromatography (Hewlett-
Packard 5890 Series II, California, USA)
It is equipped with HP 7673A automatic sampler and flame ionization detector.
Quantitative limit of 2-EEA was 1. 82 μg. The mean (SD)recovery of 2-
The EEA of the three concentrations was 99. 6% (1.
However, there was no significant difference between 30 male workers.
There was no difference in red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet count among female workers.
View this table: View comparison of blood parameters for inline View pop-up table 3 2-
EEA has high and low exposure to workers, layered by gender. The cut points of male hemoglobin, red blood cell pressure, red blood cell count, white blood cell count and platelet outliers are set to 8. 385 mmol/l, 0. 40, 4.
According to the abnormal diagnostic criteria commonly used clinically, they were 5 × 1012/l, 5 × 109/l and 150 × 109/l, respectively.
The cut points of female hemoglobin, red blood cell pressure, red blood cell count, white blood cell count and platelet outliers are set to 7. 453 mmol/l, 0. 40, 4.
0 × 1012/l, 5 × 109/l, 150 × 109/l, respectively.
The distribution of outliers in male and female workers was compared (table 4).
The high exposure group and control group of male and female workers had no significant difference in the proportion of abnormalities in all parameters.
View this table: View comparison of abnormal proportions of blood parameters in inline View pop-up table 4 2-
High EEA exposure by sex and control group workers
Response relationship between 2-
EEA exposure and blood effect 5 showed a multivariate regression model of Blood Parameters for air 2-
EEA concentration of 36 workers.
Hemoglobin, red blood cell pressure and red blood cell count and Air 2-
The EEA concentration was adjusted after potential confounding factors.
EEA, the lower hemoglobin, red blood cell pressure and red blood cell count.
However, white blood cell count and platelet-to-air concentration 2-EEA.
This regression data indicates that the dose is negative-
Response relationship between 2-
Exposure to EEA and red blood cell damage.
View this table: View the regression model of the Air blood parameters of the inline View pop-up table 5-
EEA concentration adjusted for potential hybrid factors (n=36)
Although many workers may be exposed to 2-EE or 2-
EEA, published articles on blood toxicity, especially for women exposed workers, is very limited. A case of 2-
EE poisoning is reported in Russia.
15 It is reported that another petrologist with the possibility of contact with dipropylene glycol 1 A ether 2-reported a case of anemia
EE, as well as a range of fat, aromatic and halogen hydrocarbons for offset printing and UV-curing multi-color printing.
4 although dipropylene glycol a methyl ether and 2-
EE was suspected to be the cause of bone marrow injury and no detailed evaluation was made.
2-epidemiology of hematopoietic function
It is reported that the human EEA.
Cullen et al conducted a study of a small group of stone craftsmen whose occupations were exposed to organic substances used in printing operations that had previously been unrelated to blood diseases in humans or animals.
4 the organic solvent used in the operation of this printing machine is ultraviolet curing washing liquid (
Main dipropylene glycol monoether diluted with n-propanol)
And non-washing solution
UV curing ink consisting of 10% 2-
EE mixed with aromatic and fat hydrocarbons.
With the exception of clinical diseases, seven were evaluated
Workers showed normal peripheral blood pictures, but bone marrow specimens showed multiple focus areas of absolute marrow cell dysplasia plus matrix damage in three cases, while absolute marrow cell dysplasia in the other case
The authors raise some serious questions that studies limited to blood counts are not sensitive.
Study on bone marrow toxicity of Jin et al-Lu Yue, a shipyard painter-EEA.
3 Air concentration 2-
The EEA of the high and low exposure groups was 3. 03 and 1.
76 ppm respectively.
The average WBCs in the high exposure group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and 11% of the 57 painters were white light.
Red blood cells are within the normal range.
Bone marrow puncture was performed on three leucorrhea workers;
They have poor bone marrow development.
The author states that white blood cells are not red blood cells 2-
The EEA in the study may be explained by experiments done by Nagano and his colleagues, of which 16 white blood cells are affected by lower doses and red blood cells are only affected by higher doses 2-EEA.
Cross-sectional study of shipyard painters exposed to mean values (SD)2-
Methyl ethanol (2-ME)level of 0. 8 (1. 0)
Ppm and an average (SD)2-EE level of 2. 6 (4. 2)
Ppm found a higher proportion of anemia (haemoglobin