First, we should understand that the PCB price is composed of the following factors:
1. Different materials of PCB
Take the ordinary double board as an example, the CCL material generally has fr-4, cem-3, board thickness from 0.6mm to 3.0mm, copper thickness from 1/2 Oz to 3 Oz, all these have caused a huge price difference in the material. In terms of solder mask ink, ordinary thermosetting ink and photosensitive green ink also exists a certain price difference.
2. The production process of PCB is different
Different production processes will result in different costs. Such as Gold-plated PCB and HASL PCB, the production of gongs (milling) board and punch board, the use of silkscreen line and dry film line will form different costs.
3. PCB itself is of different difficulty
Even if the material and the process are the same, but the difficulty of PCB itself will also cause different costs. If there are 1000 holes in the two kinds of circuit boards, the hole size is larger than 0.6mm and the hole size is smaller than 0.6mm, the drilling cost will be different. Line width and line spacing are different, one is more than 0.2mm, the other is less than 0.2mm, will also cause different production costs, because the scrap rate of the difficult board is higher, the cost is bound to increase, thus resulting in price diversity.
4. Different customer requirements
Customer requirements will directly affect the rate of finished products, such as A kind of board according to IPC-a-600e, the requirements of the class2 will be 98% qualified rate, but according to the class3 requirements maybe only 90% qualified rate, resulting in different costs of the PCB factory, resulting in the final product price variable.
5. Price diversity caused by different PCB manufacturers
Even if the same product, but because of different manufacturers have different process equipment and technical level, will also form different costs.
6. Different payment terms
At present, the PCB board factory will adjust the PCB price according to the different payment methods, ranging from 5% to 10%, thus causing the price difference.
7. Different regions
At present, the price in China is increasing from south to north in terms of geographical location, and there are certain differences in prices in different regions. Therefore, different regions also lead to the diversity of prices.
How to calculate the PCB quote?
1. Board material fees (different PCB material costs are different)
2. Cost of drilling (the number and size of holes affect the cost of drilling)
3. Process cost (different process difficulty caused by different technological requirements of the board)
4. Cost of labor, utilities plus management fee (this fee depends on the cost control of each factory)
These are the basic composition, as for the price of raw materials, now has been basically stable.
The following is a supplement, in terms of the material of the PCB board, the impact of the price mainly on the following points:
1. Board material, fr-4 is our common material of double-sided and multi-layer board, and its price is also related to the thickness of the board and the thickness of the copper foil.
2. The thickness of the board, its common thickness is: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6, 2.0, 2.4, 3.0, 3.4, the price of our conventional boards are not very different for different thickness.
3. The thickness of copper foil will affect the price, the copper thickness is generally divided into 18 (2/1oz), 35 (1OZ) 70 (2OZ), 105 (3OZ), 140 (4OZ) and so on.
4. Suppliers of raw materials, commonly used are Shengyi, Kingboard, international and so on.
1. Depending on the wiring on the PCB, the price will be calculated separately if the circuit width/space below 4/4mil.
2. If there is BGA on the board, so the cost will rise relatively
3. The surface treatment process, we commonly have: spray lead-tin (hot air leveling), OSP, spray pure tin, immersion tin, immersion silver/gold and so on, of course, the surface process is different, the price will be different.
4. The process standards; We commonly use are IPC2 class, but there are customer requirements that will be higher, we commonly have: IPC2, IPC3, enterprise standard, military standard and so on, of course, the higher the standard, the higher the price will be.
In short, every PCB sold in the PCB industry is customized by the customer, so the quotation of PCB board needs to conduct cost accounting first, at the same time, it also needs to refer to the PCB computer automatic panel calculation, make a comprehensive quote on the utilization rate of the materials discharged on the standard size copper clad laminate.
The cost calculation of the PCB industry is the most special and complex among all the industries. From the material opening, pressing, forming, to FQC, packaging, completion, and warehousing, it is necessary to calculate the material cost, labor cost and manufacturing cost of each process input step by step, and then accumulate the cost in batches according to the order number.
And different types of PCB products, the standard rate of the process will be different. For some products such as blind & buried via PCB, metal core PCB, heavy copper PCB board, due to the particularity of its processor all materials, it is required to use some special calculation methods. Similarly, the size of the drill nozzle used in the drilling process will also affect the cost of the product, which will directly affect the calculation and evaluation of WIP cost and scrap cost.
In addition, the PCB factory belongs to OEM customer OEM products, different customer orders are not the same products, there are few Shared products.
On the other hand, for quality considerations, some customers may also specify the use of a manufacturer's material, or ink, etc., in order to meet it's quality and cost control requirements.
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❖ ECN (engineering change notice) changes
ECN engineering changes often occur in the production process of PCB industry products, and there are often both internal and external ECN changes (customer engineering document changes). Frequent ECN changes in product design, if not managed properly, can result in a staggering amount of scrapped inventory. Therefore, how to plan ECN product design changes is a very critical and important thing.
❖ Planning and the establishment of BOM data
The planning and establishment of basic BOM data are as important to the PCB industry as the foundation of a building. It is inevitable that if the foundation is not well laid, the building will not be built.
The basic engineering data includes two parts: 1. Material basic data management 2. BOM management of product structure.
PCB industry is a rapidly developing industry, and the number of materials and processes will be changed due to the progress of technology. Some materials and processes will be no longer used after one or two years, while some materials and processes will be increased due to the progress of production technology and r&d technology. Therefore, in terms of the basic data, PCB industry will have a lot of changes.
With all that said, how can we ensure the delivery date?
The short delivery period of PCB industry requires the production management to control the entire production process from the order placing to the completion of production, which requires the ERP system to provide the production scheduling and work-in-process management to ensure the product delivery time and customer response speed.
Therefore, the most critical competitive advantage of PCB lies in: engineering research and development, production management, material control, manufacturing, outsourcing processing and other links, especially WIP (WIP) control of on-site production management. If the WIP is not properly controlled, there will be many mismanaged phenomena such as mixed version, loss, stagnation and rotation, inaccurate WIP quantity, delay of filling materials, increased frequency of changing lines, and unclear delivery date.
PCB industry has a wide range of products, which are generally distinguished according to the number of layers, including single board, double board, four layers, eight layers, ten layers and so on. PCB processing materials, process flow, process parameters, detection methods, quality requirements, etc., will be prepared by the production instructions (MI), processing instructions to the production department.
For products with four layers and below, the process is relatively simple, the production process card can be done from the beginning to the end, there is no need to change the process or replace the process card. As for more than six-layer blind & buried via board products, because of different inner and outer wiring diagram, process flow or process parameters, also use the different mold, film, and other ancillary equipment, you need to use different instructions and related documents, in the process of production will also make different production process card, to control the different inner lining, the outer layer of the manufacturing process and quantity.
In the production process, the multi-layer board will have different inner layer codes, which must be distinguished by different codes in the production process, and the production schedule will be controlled by different production processes CARDS. PCB is through the production of batch CARDS (Lot Card) auxiliary products transfer handover, commonly known as Count. Due to a large number of online products produced and complicated models, counting operations, scrapping operations, and rework operations are all required to be simple and fast.
In general, the more detailed a production plan is, the more informative and valuable it is, and the more difficult it is to calculate. However, the process flow involved in PCB is often complex. The production of engineering data and MI of a PCB multi-layer board with complex technology often takes a long time to complete, and the delivery date required by the customer is often very urgent.
For the production management of the PCB manufacturing industry, it is a process-oriented manufacturing method, so the management technology of Run Card scheduling will be adopted. Therefore, when scheduling the following PCB manufacturing process characteristics must be paid attention to:
❖ Reflow processing
PCB processing is a representative process processing, which is different from the mechanical assembly processing mode. It mainly consists of one kind of raw material input, followed by the input of auxiliary materials, and the processing process is all around the main raw material processing. In addition, due to the emergence of multilayer technology, there are more and more cases of backflow production in PCB industry (that is, repeated processing of a certain process or a certain section).
❖ Cutting and lamination
Whether the substrate processing of the front section or the output of the PCB board of the back section, must go through a link is continuous cutting. The former part is a large amount of original cloth, which will be continuously cut to a reasonable size for subsequent processing in order to meet the needs of subsequent processing. The other process is lamination, whether the front section of the processing substrate or the back section of the processing of the multi-layer board, it is necessary to lamination work, that is to press two plates with the same area and shape into one, especially in the multi-layer board pressing.
The characteristics of cutting and pressing, that is, the number of raw materials needed to process a certain number of finished products, the number of the large board into the number of a small board, so as to calculate the number of raw materials input. However, when there is a waste/waste situation, sometimes the workload of the PCB factory will increase and the process will not be smooth.
❖ Single unit scrap
Unlike scrappage in the assembly industry, there is also the so-called single unit scrap of PCB. The reason is that the lamination process is usually carried out for the large board, a large board will generally produce different quantities of final single products. When defects occur in the pre-pressing process, resulting in poor quality at a certain point on the single board A or B, the production personnel cannot simply throw away the large board but continue to use the material, but A single scrap quantity will be recorded for the panel board.
For example, A large board A can be cut to 16 pieces of small PCB board at the end. However, due to technical problems in the current processing process, A point on the board is damaged, a single piece is scrapped to 1, and the final number of small board is 15 pieces.
Finally, the PCB industry is a kind of OEM industry, the product design change is very frequent, often changes the version. Once the customer changes the version, the manufacturing instructions and process CARDS also have to cooperate with the changes, there may even be some changes, some not changing. Finally, welcome to Rocket PCB, a very nice PCB prototype company, without leaving home, enjoy 24H quotation and order service.
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