open-source hardware for medical devices

by:Rocket PCB     2019-09-07
AbstractOpen-
The source hardware is the hardware of the public design, and anyone can research, modify, distribute, make and sell the design or hardware according to the design. Some open-
The source hardware project may be used as an active medical device. The open-
Source approach offers a unique combination of advantages, including cost reduction and faster innovation.
This article compares the open 10
From the point of view of the difficulty of obtaining the required components and building the equipment, the source health care project.
Wide open range-
Medical sensors and low-cost single-
Tablets are easy to buy in the consumer market.
Arduino is arguably one of the most extensive and successful open platforms
SOURCE hardware platform with a micro controller with simple functionsto-
Build the device using the ideal development environment.
It has a large community of supporters and an open library of software that simplifies many tasks.
The fundamental shift in approach is that these new designs are open.
In principle, anyone can build the Arduino because its full design specification is available to anyone.
This openness has prompted many people to create a large number of compatible sensors and other devices.
The irony is that the design is open rather than protecting them (
Patented)
By stimulating the global market, they have greatly increased their sales and reduced their prices. Why is open-
Is source hardware a good idea for medical devices?
Make hardware design available in an open environment
Source license allows anyone to improve device design and contribute to it, which leads to very rapid innovation compared to traditional methods.
It also enables the design to be modified for very specific uses and makes the device easy to repair, which also reduces the environmental impact of these devices. An open-
Source Medical devices improve security, security and robustness by allowing more people to check and improve their designs.
In fact, it is so difficult to develop good computer security that the best encryption algorithms are always developed in an open environment to allow others to check and improve them.
4 Also, if the software that connects the device is open-
Standardized source and physical interface, vendor locking-
Can be prevented. Open-
Source also allows many manufacturers to use the same design, but differs in other ways in order to compete, for example in terms of availability, support, or wider interoperation with other devices.
The same approach can improve medical equipment.
Open potential
According to WHO data, 70-90% of all medical devices donated to the developing world have never achieved the desired functionality.
5. 6 very simple faults, such as broken fuse or dead battery, account for 15% of these faults.
As there is no manual or due to poor user training, 20% of all donated equipment is not used.
Even if training is provided, technical personnel are rarely trained in technology.
An open-
Can medical devices like syringe pumps solve these problems?
Depending on the number of features and their application, the cost of a new syringe pump on the market at the moment may be between $500 and $10 k. Open-
SOURCE syringe pumps can be built at a cost of 5-10% of similar performance pumps, which has great potential in the developing world to make medical equipment easier to obtain, 7 can also design the device as an open device
Provide resources and builds for specific use cases without having to rely on donated devices from first world countries. It can be said that
Although the scale is different, the health care of resource \"development\" also has the exact same problem: Open-
Therefore, source should have similar benefits in developed health care systems.
Quantify the value of openness
Source hardware has developed a set of formulas to quantify open-
Hardware design.
One method is to compare distributed manufacturing with traditional manufacturing based on the number of downloads that lead to the design of the manufacturing product.
Another way is to calculate the cost savings based on the designer\'s design hours and hourly salary without having to copy the product design.
The third method is to calculate the market size of distributed manufacturing methods based on the number of products and their manufacturing costs.
Using the first method described above, the value of the basic syringe pump design of Wijnen et al is shown between $778000 and $12.
More than 4 million a year.
This is called an alternative valuation of downloads, calculating annual savings by comparing the cost of purchasing traditional manufactured products with the marginal cost of producing open products
Use the source hardware version of distributed manufacturing.
Using the number of open times to further quantify the value of the design
Download the source hardware design.
Clinical trials of regulatory issues with medical devices may take 2 to 5 years.
Although 5 years is a long time for a small business to design and develop as part of an open, as well as clinical trials
Source project means that small businesses can share the load.
In principle, the business needs to operate in less time before a new product is successfully launched.
Open potential
According to WHO data, 70-90% of all medical devices donated to the developing world have never achieved the desired functionality.
5. 6 very simple faults, such as broken fuse or dead battery, account for 15% of these faults.
As there is no manual or due to poor user training, 20% of all donated equipment is not used.
Even if training is provided, technical personnel are rarely trained in technology.
An open-
Can medical devices like syringe pumps solve these problems?
Depending on the number of features and their application, the cost of a new syringe pump on the market at the moment may be between $500 and $10 k. Open-
SOURCE syringe pumps can be built at a cost of 5-10% of similar performance pumps, which has great potential in the developing world to make medical equipment easier to obtain, 7 can also design the device as an open device
Provide resources and builds for specific use cases without having to rely on donated devices from first world countries. It can be said that
Although the scale is different, the health care of resource \"development\" also has the exact same problem: Open-
Therefore, source should have similar benefits in developed health care systems.
Quantify the value of openness
Source hardware has developed a set of formulas to quantify open-
Hardware design.
One method is to compare distributed manufacturing with traditional manufacturing based on the number of downloads that lead to the design of the manufacturing product.
Another way is to calculate the cost savings based on the designer\'s design hours and hourly salary without having to copy the product design.
The third method is to calculate the market size of distributed manufacturing methods based on the number of products and their manufacturing costs.
Using the first method described above, the value of the basic syringe pump design of Wijnen et al is shown between $778000 and $12.
More than 4 million a year.
This is called an alternative valuation of downloads, calculating annual savings by comparing the cost of purchasing traditional manufactured products with the marginal cost of producing open products
Use the source hardware version of distributed manufacturing.
Using the number of open times to further quantify the value of the design
Download the source hardware design.
Clinical trials of regulatory issues with medical devices may take 2 to 5 years.
Although 5 years is a long time for a small business to design and develop as part of an open, as well as clinical trials
Source project means that small businesses can share the load.
In principle, the business needs to operate in less time before a new product is successfully launched.
We chose 10 open ones.
SOURCE hardware medical devices, and compare them based on the difficulty of obtaining components and building devices independently.
Systematic review is not possible at this stage as many projects are still in the early stages and have not yet been reported in their peers
Review the literature.
Therefore, since this is a rapidly evolving area, we do not claim that our list of projects is exhaustive or fully representative.
We define the scope of review based on the following inclusion criteria :(1)
Availability of source files, and (2)
It has the potential to be used as an active medical device, that is, it can function by relying on software and electricity.
For example, there are two of all the design files-
CAD (size chartcomputer-aided design)
Files, circuit diagrams and layouts need to be provided and modified.
If the file is only in
Editable format, items are excluded.
For example, Robohand9 three-dimensional (3D)-
Print repair items do not share source files, only STL (
Stereo printing)
File, then only inEditable format.
We differentiate: passive medical devices, such as hose holder medical devices that rely on software, such as most syringe drive devices studied in the laboratory, like centrifugesProject, the muscle electrical prosthesis is controlled by the tiny voltage generated by the activity of residual muscles on the surface of the skin, called Surface EMG (EMG).
These voltages are amplified and processed so that the motor on the prosthesis moves in a predictable manner when the user bends the muscles.
The EMG prosthesis will take away the wiring harness and cable of the body.
Power equipment that can make it look very natural, though at the expense of a more stringent, less comfortable socket.
Another drawback of these devices is the lack of responsiveness: most prosthetic hands move slowly at the expense of quick action to increase grip or battery life.
However, the main barrier to adoption is cost: the cost of an arm is at least $30 000.
MyOpenMyOpen, 10 parts of the Open repair project, 11 created Open-
SOURCE hardware for electric control.
The circuit board design and related software of digital signal processing unit can be provided.
It is hoped that it will eventually be used to control the Mechatronics prosthesis of the amputee.
MyOpen wants to reduce the cost of the prosthetic limb to $250.
Silva and others produced and tested a self-
The prosthesis is controlled by a mechanical muscle diagram.
Their device consists of three sensors, each consisting of a microphone and an accelerometer, for receiving muscle sounds and detecting external interference.
Their signals are explained by the micro-controller and converted into simulated EMG signals to control Otto Bock hands.
The results show that the control accuracy of the device is more than 70%.
In order to replicate the study by Silva et al, open prosthetic project 11 established a data acquisition system for recording MMG signals.
It consists of a 3.
5mm audio plug, microphone cartridge, some wires and laptop.
The cost of components is less than $5, excluding laptops.
The microphone is a type of resident capacitor that is powered by the sound card of the laptop.
They use it for free.
SOURCE Software (FOSS)
Record and process sounds boldly.
They glued the microphone directly to the skin with masking tape, plugged it into the laptop and recorded the audio.
No special skills or tools are required to build this system. e-
Another effort to develop a muscle-powered prosthesis is the limb-free arm 16 created by a team at the University of Central Florida.
This artificial limb is also e-
An online community that connects amputees to people with 3D printers.
It is estimated that it will take about $350 to produce an unrestricted arm.
To produce a 3D printed manipulator, 3D universe18 is selling a \"manual material kit\" for $25 \".
This kit is only used for assembling printed hands and also by e-Accessible Community
Models can be downloaded and printed for free.
However, the user still needs to use a 3D printer to print the part.
Please note that cheap 3D printers are available in some open developing world environments
Even designed as a mobile source printer.
ScannerJansen20 built an open
SOURCE desktop CT scanner (see figure 1)
For small objects.
Complete design files are available online, 21 files including mechanical design, circuit schematic and firmware.
The CT scanner uses a very low-intensity radioisotope X-
This means that even low-resolution images take hours of measurement.
It was designed for academic and educational purposes, but hopefully it will eventually be used as a medical scanner in developing countries.
Download new tabDownload powerpointFigure1 show
Source ct scanner (
Photos by Peter Jansen, images authorized by Creative CommonsSA license).
Jansen\'s design is almost entirely laser.
A cutting CT scanner with four motion axes, one is a large rotating gantry.
The stepping motor of the rotary gantry is the National Association of electrical manufacturers (NEMA)
Step from open-17
SOURCE hardware distributor Adafruit ($14)
, It uses the belt and timing pulley to transfer the movement to the drive shaft.
Each linear shaft has a small bracket containing the holder of the source or detector.
Each shaft has a cheap NEMA14 stepping motor that is also from Adafruit (under $14)
And a guide wheel.
23 Jan sen uses a very small solid-state high
Energy particle detectors called types
5 from the radiation watch, can be connected to the external micro-controller.
The price of this particle detector is less than $80.
To test motion and detector, Jansen assembled an Arduino Shield ($45)
Comes with three Pololu step controllers 24 and connectors for detectors.
The SD card slot can store large scanned image data.
The source of radiation used in Jansen\'s design is Barium-133 (
The cost is between $80 and $125. 00)
The energy is 80-383 kV.
This radioactive isotope check source is sealed in epoxy and is so low in strength that unless the material is digested or glued to the body for a long time, otherwise it will not be licensed 25 and considered safe it can be disposed of as a general waste.
Total cost of Jansen opening-
Source ct scanner (
Laser cutting machine not included)is about $300. Open-
A source laser cutter can be made for about $1000.
All the required components are easily accessible and require only basic knowledge of electronics and laser cutting.
The infusion pump distributes the liquid within the set time.
In hospitals, they are used to provide drugs for treatments such as chemotherapy and pain management, while laboratories use them in all areas from microfluids to bioprinting.
Manufacture of demotion pump by squirming pumpFechko26 of Fechko (see figure 2)
Use Raspberry Pi single
Tablets and standardized T-
A slot profile structure set called OpenBeam.
The pump is designed as a fluid reward system for laboratory animals, but can also be used for other purposes.
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure2 raspberry Compact Pump (
Photos of Amber Fechko, images authorized by Creative CommonsSA license).
Electronics consist of modular components that do not require welding.
The electronics used are Arduino or Raspberry Pi as well as easy access from open-
Hardware distributors.
Arduino uses Motor Shield and controls the chip using Gertboard or L293D motor, source code can be used.
All components used can be turned offthe-
Special skills are not required to build pumps.
Syringe pumpwjnen et al. of Wijnen et al. published a complete public article
SOURCE syringe pump Library, from a series of 3D-
Make printable parts for syringe pumps.
The performance of the syringe pump was evaluated and the methods used for evaluation were described in detail.
The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are open. The 3D-
Printable parts can be modified using open-
A source parameterized 3D design tool called OpenSCAD27 and a derivative such as OpenPump28, 29 have been created.
To build the device, you can print the necessary parts using a 3D printer or a 3D printing service.
This Electronics is based on Raspberry Pi, stepping motor and driver components that can be obtained from open-
Hardware distributors.
Most of the mechanical parts are available from local hardware stores.
Some professional components, such as ball bearings, linear bearings and flexible coupling, can be purchased online.
The source code of the Raspberry Pi is available.
Physiological Monitoring
Health sensor platform
The health sensor platform 30 of the Spanish electronics manufacturer Libelium is an open physiological monitoring platform that uses nine different sensors: Pulse, oxygen in the blood (SpO2), airflow (breathing)
, Body temperature, ECG, blood glucose meter, skin electrical response, blood pressure (
Blood Pressure Monitor)
And patient location (accelerometer).
As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, the platform consists of a board or shield inserted into the Arduino or Raspberry Pi and an interface with various sensors, allowing experiments directly with the signals emitted by these sensors.
Download the new tabDownload powerpointFigure3 Arduino (
Bottom, display USB connector)and e-Health shield. UK £1 coin (2. 25u2005cm diameter)for scale. (
Photo of Patrick Oladimeji-SA license).
Download figureOpen in the new tab download powerpoint figure 4 connect to e-\'s blood glucose meterHealth shield (
Photo of Patrick Oladimeji-SA license).
Raspberry Pi or Arduino is required to build the device.
Special skills are not required as it is a modular kit and all kinds of components have just been inserted.
The component provided is off-the-
Shelf sensors and products that have been modified to work with the kit.
Raspberry Pi and Arduino have source code.
OpenBCIOpenBCI is eight
Channel EEG signal acquisition platform (see figure 5)
Hardware, software and mechanical design files can be found online.
It\'s designed for the human brain.
Computer interface technology, but hardware can also be used to perform other types of biosensing such as EMG and heart rate (EKG).
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure5 OpenBCI brain
Computer Interface (
Photos of Wikimedia Commons, images of Creative Commons licensesSA license).
All hardware and electrodes are included in the kit.
It is a modular suite that provides hardware design files. A 3D-
A printable EEG headset called Spider claws is under development.
Arduino has Source code (8-bit), ChipKit (32-bit)
, Processing and Python. Do-it-
Russell and others released their own blood pressure monitoring to build do-it-yourself (DIY)
Blood pressure monitoring.
The instructions include a list of materials and a circuit diagram.
The blood pressure monitor relies on an electronic pressure sensor connected to a liquid-free blood pressure monitor (
Mechanical type with table plate).
The display runs on a battery that can be charged using a hand-held generator.
They do mention that this is an experimental prototype that should not be relied on for clinical use.
The device can be built using the basic tools of the home hardware store.
Various electronic components that can be obtained from distributors, andthe-
Shelf pressure gauge. An off-the-
The shelf item box is used to accommodate electronic products.
The micro-chip PIC micro-controller has Source code and only requires basic knowledge of electronics and welding.
Diabetesdiabetoeto is a small device that plugs into a blood glucose meter and transmits blood glucose readings to a smartphone app.
The data can then be displayed and analyzed on the Diabeto web app, the mobile app, and the Pebble smartwatch.
Hardware design files, bill of materials and user instructions are available online.
33. Diabeto is sold as a commercial advertisementthe-
But hardware design files can be found online.
Various electronic components can be purchased from distributors.
The list of materials includes the name of the manufacturer and the product code.
The shell and software don\'t seem to open-source.
Evening School xDripThe evening school project 34 is an open-
Allow real Source items
Time visit of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM)
Connect to the phone and send the data to the web app, smartphone app and smartwatch app.
XDrip35 is an open
SOURCE hardware device, read the wireless signal transmitted by the CGM sensor, and pass the Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE).
Data can also be transferred from the smartphone app to the Night Scout database.
Soldering iron and Dexcom CGM are required in order to make this equipment.
There are four electronic components available from open-
SOURCE Hardware Distributor: BLE module, USB wireless module, battery and charger and wire.
The source code of the Android mobile app is available.
The EMG prosthesis is controlled by a small voltage generated by the activity of residual muscles on the surface of the skin, called Surface EMG (EMG).
These voltages are amplified and processed so that the motor on the prosthesis moves in a predictable manner when the user bends the muscles.
The EMG prosthesis will take away the wiring harness and cable of the body.
Power equipment that can make it look very natural, though at the expense of a more stringent, less comfortable socket.
Another drawback of these devices is the lack of responsiveness: most prosthetic hands move slowly at the expense of quick action to increase grip or battery life.
However, the main barrier to adoption is cost: the cost of an arm is at least $30 000.
MyOpenMyOpen, 10 parts of the Open repair project, 11 created Open-
SOURCE hardware for electric control.
The circuit board design and related software of digital signal processing unit can be provided.
It is hoped that it will eventually be used to control the Mechatronics prosthesis of the amputee.
MyOpen wants to reduce the cost of the prosthetic limb to $250.
Silva and others produced and tested a self-
The prosthesis is controlled by a mechanical muscle diagram.
Their device consists of three sensors, each consisting of a microphone and an accelerometer, for receiving muscle sounds and detecting external interference.
Their signals are explained by the micro-controller and converted into simulated EMG signals to control Otto Bock hands.
The results show that the control accuracy of the device is more than 70%.
In order to replicate the study by Silva et al, open prosthetic project 11 established a data acquisition system for recording MMG signals.
It consists of a 3.
5mm audio plug, microphone cartridge, some wires and laptop.
The cost of components is less than $5, excluding laptops.
The microphone is a type of resident capacitor that is powered by the sound card of the laptop.
They use it for free.
SOURCE Software (FOSS)
Record and process sounds boldly.
They glued the microphone directly to the skin with masking tape, plugged it into the laptop and recorded the audio.
No special skills or tools are required to build this system. e-
Another effort to develop a muscle-powered prosthesis is the limb-free arm 16 created by a team at the University of Central Florida.
This artificial limb is also e-
An online community that connects amputees to people with 3D printers.
It is estimated that it will take about $350 to produce an unrestricted arm.
To produce a 3D printed manipulator, 3D universe18 is selling a \"manual material kit\" for $25 \".
This kit is only used for assembling printed hands and also by e-Accessible Community
Models can be downloaded and printed for free.
However, the user still needs to use a 3D printer to print the part.
Please note that cheap 3D printers are available in some open developing world environments
Even designed as a mobile source printer.
19 MyOpenMyOpen, 10 parts of the Open repair project, 11 created Open-
SOURCE hardware for electric control.
The circuit board design and related software of digital signal processing unit can be provided.
It is hoped that it will eventually be used to control the Mechatronics prosthesis of the amputee.
MyOpen wants to reduce the cost of the prosthetic limb to $250.
Silva and others produced and tested a self-
The prosthesis is controlled by a mechanical muscle diagram.
Their device consists of three sensors, each consisting of a microphone and an accelerometer, for receiving muscle sounds and detecting external interference.
Their signals are explained by the micro-controller and converted into simulated EMG signals to control Otto Bock hands.
The results show that the control accuracy of the device is more than 70%.
In order to replicate the study by Silva et al, open prosthetic project 11 established a data acquisition system for recording MMG signals.
It consists of a 3.
5mm audio plug, microphone cartridge, some wires and laptop.
The cost of components is less than $5, excluding laptops.
The microphone is a type of resident capacitor that is powered by the sound card of the laptop.
They use it for free.
SOURCE Software (FOSS)
Record and process sounds boldly.
They glued the microphone directly to the skin with masking tape, plugged it into the laptop and recorded the audio.
No special skills or tools are required to build this system. e-
Another effort to develop a muscle-powered prosthesis is the limb-free arm 16 created by a team at the University of Central Florida.
This artificial limb is also e-
An online community that connects amputees to people with 3D printers.
It is estimated that it will take about $350 to produce an unrestricted arm.
To produce a 3D printed manipulator, 3D universe18 is selling a \"manual material kit\" for $25 \".
This kit is only used for assembling printed hands and also by e-Accessible Community
Models can be downloaded and printed for free.
However, the user still needs to use a 3D printer to print the part.
Please note that cheap 3D printers are available in some open developing world environments
Even designed as a mobile source printer.
ScannerJansen20 built an open
SOURCE desktop CT scanner (see figure 1)
For small objects.
Complete design files are available online, 21 files including mechanical design, circuit schematic and firmware.
The CT scanner uses a very low-intensity radioisotope X-
This means that even low-resolution images take hours of measurement.
It was designed for academic and educational purposes, but hopefully it will eventually be used as a medical scanner in developing countries.
Download new tabDownload powerpointFigure1 show
Source ct scanner (
Photos by Peter Jansen, images authorized by Creative CommonsSA license).
Jansen\'s design is almost entirely laser.
A cutting CT scanner with four motion axes, one is a large rotating gantry.
The stepping motor of the rotary gantry is the National Association of electrical manufacturers (NEMA)
Step from open-17
SOURCE hardware distributor Adafruit ($14)
, It uses the belt and timing pulley to transfer the movement to the drive shaft.
Each linear shaft has a small bracket containing the holder of the source or detector.
Each shaft has a cheap NEMA14 stepping motor that is also from Adafruit (under $14)
And a guide wheel.
23 Jan sen uses a very small solid-state high
Energy particle detectors called types
5 from the radiation watch, can be connected to the external micro-controller.
The price of this particle detector is less than $80.
To test motion and detector, Jansen assembled an Arduino Shield ($45)
Comes with three Pololu step controllers 24 and connectors for detectors.
The SD card slot can store large scanned image data.
The source of radiation used in Jansen\'s design is Barium-133 (
The cost is between $80 and $125. 00)
The energy is 80-383 kV.
This radioactive isotope check source is sealed in epoxy and is so low in strength that unless the material is digested or glued to the body for a long time, otherwise it will not be licensed 25 and considered safe it can be disposed of as a general waste.
Total cost of Jansen opening-
Source ct scanner (
Laser cutting machine not included)is about $300. Open-
A source laser cutter can be made for about $1000.
All the required components are easily accessible and require only basic knowledge of electronics and laser cutting.
The infusion pump distributes the liquid within the set time.
In hospitals, they are used to provide drugs for treatments such as chemotherapy and pain management, while laboratories use them in all areas from microfluids to bioprinting.
Manufacture of demotion pump by squirming pumpFechko26 of Fechko (see figure 2)
Use Raspberry Pi single
Tablets and standardized T-
A slot profile structure set called OpenBeam.
The pump is designed as a fluid reward system for laboratory animals, but can also be used for other purposes.
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure2 raspberry Compact Pump (
Photos of Amber Fechko, images authorized by Creative CommonsSA license).
Electronics consist of modular components that do not require welding.
The electronics used are Arduino or Raspberry Pi as well as easy access from open-
Hardware distributors.
Arduino uses Motor Shield and controls the chip using Gertboard or L293D motor, source code can be used.
All components used can be turned offthe-
Special skills are not required to build pumps.
Syringe pumpwjnen et al. of Wijnen et al. published a complete public article
SOURCE syringe pump Library, from a series of 3D-
Make printable parts for syringe pumps.
The performance of the syringe pump was evaluated and the methods used for evaluation were described in detail.
The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are open. The 3D-
Printable parts can be modified using open-
A source parameterized 3D design tool called OpenSCAD27 and a derivative such as OpenPump28, 29 have been created.
To build the device, you can print the necessary parts using a 3D printer or a 3D printing service.
This Electronics is based on Raspberry Pi, stepping motor and driver components that can be obtained from open-
Hardware distributors.
Most of the mechanical parts are available from local hardware stores.
Some professional components, such as ball bearings, linear bearings and flexible coupling, can be purchased online.
The source code of the Raspberry Pi is available.
Manufacture of demotion pump by squirming pumpFechko26 of Fechko (see figure 2)
Use Raspberry Pi single
Tablets and standardized T-
A slot profile structure set called OpenBeam.
The pump is designed as a fluid reward system for laboratory animals, but can also be used for other purposes.
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure2 raspberry Compact Pump (
Photos of Amber Fechko, images authorized by Creative CommonsSA license).
Electronics consist of modular components that do not require welding.
The electronics used are Arduino or Raspberry Pi as well as easy access from open-
Hardware distributors.
Arduino uses Motor Shield and controls the chip using Gertboard or L293D motor, source code can be used.
All components used can be turned offthe-
Special skills are not required to build pumps.
Syringe pumpwjnen et al. of Wijnen et al. published a complete public article
SOURCE syringe pump Library, from a series of 3D-
Make printable parts for syringe pumps.
The performance of the syringe pump was evaluated and the methods used for evaluation were described in detail.
The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are open. The 3D-
Printable parts can be modified using open-
A source parameterized 3D design tool called OpenSCAD27 and a derivative such as OpenPump28, 29 have been created.
To build the device, you can print the necessary parts using a 3D printer or a 3D printing service.
This Electronics is based on Raspberry Pi, stepping motor and driver components that can be obtained from open-
Hardware distributors.
Most of the mechanical parts are available from local hardware stores.
Some professional components, such as ball bearings, linear bearings and flexible coupling, can be purchased online.
The source code of the Raspberry Pi is available.
Physiological Monitoring
Health sensor platform
The health sensor platform 30 of the Spanish electronics manufacturer Libelium is an open physiological monitoring platform that uses nine different sensors: Pulse, oxygen in the blood (SpO2), airflow (breathing)
, Body temperature, ECG, blood glucose meter, skin electrical response, blood pressure (
Blood Pressure Monitor)
And patient location (accelerometer).
As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, the platform consists of a board or shield inserted into the Arduino or Raspberry Pi and an interface with various sensors, allowing experiments directly with the signals emitted by these sensors.
Download the new tabDownload powerpointFigure3 Arduino (
Bottom, display USB connector)and e-Health shield. UK £1 coin (2. 25u2005cm diameter)for scale. (
Photo of Patrick Oladimeji-SA license).
Download figureOpen in the new tab download powerpoint figure 4 connect to e-\'s blood glucose meterHealth shield (
Photo of Patrick Oladimeji-SA license).
Raspberry Pi or Arduino is required to build the device.
Special skills are not required as it is a modular kit and all kinds of components have just been inserted.
The component provided is off-the-
Shelf sensors and products that have been modified to work with the kit.
Raspberry Pi and Arduino have source code.
OpenBCIOpenBCI is eight
Channel EEG signal acquisition platform (see figure 5)
Hardware, software and mechanical design files can be found online.
It\'s designed for the human brain.
Computer interface technology, but hardware can also be used to perform other types of biosensing such as EMG and heart rate (EKG).
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure5 OpenBCI brain
Computer Interface (
Photos of Wikimedia Commons, images of Creative Commons licensesSA license).
All hardware and electrodes are included in the kit.
It is a modular suite that provides hardware design files. A 3D-
A printable EEG headset called Spider claws is under development.
Arduino has Source code (8-bit), ChipKit (32-bit)
, Processing and Python. Do-it-
Russell and others released their own blood pressure monitoring to build do-it-yourself (DIY)
Blood pressure monitoring.
The instructions include a list of materials and a circuit diagram.
The blood pressure monitor relies on an electronic pressure sensor connected to a liquid-free blood pressure monitor (
Mechanical type with table plate).
The display runs on a battery that can be charged using a hand-held generator.
They do mention that this is an experimental prototype that should not be relied on for clinical use.
The device can be built using the basic tools of the home hardware store.
Various electronic components that can be obtained from distributors, andthe-
Shelf pressure gauge. An off-the-
The shelf item box is used to accommodate electronic products.
The micro-chip PIC micro-controller has Source code and only requires basic knowledge of electronics and welding. e-
Health sensor platform
The health sensor platform 30 of the Spanish electronics manufacturer Libelium is an open physiological monitoring platform that uses nine different sensors: Pulse, oxygen in the blood (SpO2), airflow (breathing)
, Body temperature, ECG, blood glucose meter, skin electrical response, blood pressure (
Blood Pressure Monitor)
And patient location (accelerometer).
As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, the platform consists of a board or shield inserted into the Arduino or Raspberry Pi and an interface with various sensors, allowing experiments directly with the signals emitted by these sensors.
Download the new tabDownload powerpointFigure3 Arduino (
Bottom, display USB connector)and e-Health shield. UK £1 coin (2. 25u2005cm diameter)for scale. (
Photo of Patrick Oladimeji-SA license).
Download figureOpen in the new tab download powerpoint figure 4 connect to e-\'s blood glucose meterHealth shield (
Photo of Patrick Oladimeji-SA license).
Raspberry Pi or Arduino is required to build the device.
Special skills are not required as it is a modular kit and all kinds of components have just been inserted.
The component provided is off-the-
Shelf sensors and products that have been modified to work with the kit.
Raspberry Pi and Arduino have source code.
OpenBCIOpenBCI is eight
Channel EEG signal acquisition platform (see figure 5)
Hardware, software and mechanical design files can be found online.
It\'s designed for the human brain.
Computer interface technology, but hardware can also be used to perform other types of biosensing such as EMG and heart rate (EKG).
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure5 OpenBCI brain
Computer Interface (
Photos of Wikimedia Commons, images of Creative Commons licensesSA license).
All hardware and electrodes are included in the kit.
It is a modular suite that provides hardware design files. A 3D-
A printable EEG headset called Spider claws is under development.
Arduino has Source code (8-bit), ChipKit (32-bit)
, Processing and Python. Do-it-
Russell and others released their own blood pressure monitoring to build do-it-yourself (DIY)
Blood pressure monitoring.
The instructions include a list of materials and a circuit diagram.
The blood pressure monitor relies on an electronic pressure sensor connected to a liquid-free blood pressure monitor (
Mechanical type with table plate).
The display runs on a battery that can be charged using a hand-held generator.
They do mention that this is an experimental prototype that should not be relied on for clinical use.
The device can be built using the basic tools of the home hardware store.
Various electronic components that can be obtained from distributors, andthe-
Shelf pressure gauge. An off-the-
The shelf item box is used to accommodate electronic products.
The micro-chip PIC micro-controller has Source code and only requires basic knowledge of electronics and welding.
Diabetesdiabetoeto is a small device that plugs into a blood glucose meter and transmits blood glucose readings to a smartphone app.
The data can then be displayed and analyzed on the Diabeto web app, the mobile app, and the Pebble smartwatch.
Hardware design files, bill of materials and user instructions are available online.
33. Diabeto is sold as a commercial advertisementthe-
But hardware design files can be found online.
Various electronic components can be purchased from distributors.
The list of materials includes the name of the manufacturer and the product code.
The shell and software don\'t seem to open-source.
Evening School xDripThe evening school project 34 is an open-
Allow real Source items
Time visit of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM)
Connect to the phone and send the data to the web app, smartphone app and smartwatch app.
XDrip35 is an open
SOURCE hardware device, read the wireless signal transmitted by the CGM sensor, and pass the Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE).
Data can also be transferred from the smartphone app to the Night Scout database.
Soldering iron and Dexcom CGM are required in order to make this equipment.
There are four electronic components available from open-
SOURCE Hardware Distributor: BLE module, USB wireless module, battery and charger and wire.
The source code of the Android mobile app is available.
Diabetoeto eto is a small device that plugs into a blood glucose meter and transmits blood glucose readings to a smartphone app.
The data can then be displayed and analyzed on the Diabeto web app, the mobile app, and the Pebble smartwatch.
Hardware design files, bill of materials and user instructions are available online.
33. Diabeto is sold as a commercial advertisementthe-
But hardware design files can be found online.
Various electronic components can be purchased from distributors.
The list of materials includes the name of the manufacturer and the product code.
The shell and software don\'t seem to open-source.
Evening School xDripThe evening school project 34 is an open-
Allow real Source items
Time visit of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM)
Connect to the phone and send the data to the web app, smartphone app and smartwatch app.
XDrip35 is an open
SOURCE hardware device, read the wireless signal transmitted by the CGM sensor, and pass the Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE).
Data can also be transferred from the smartphone app to the Night Scout database.
Soldering iron and Dexcom CGM are required in order to make this equipment.
There are four electronic components available from open-
SOURCE Hardware Distributor: BLE module, USB wireless module, battery and charger and wire.
The source code of the Android mobile app is available. [Conclusion]
Even if there is no such sale, the source medical devices are already available.
Table 1 shows a summary of the 10 devices compared in this article.
Obviously, open
Source currently offers solutions for high cost and slow innovation of medical devices. Off-the-
The medical sensors on the shelves can be connected to cheap embedded computers and are easy to build practical systems for the invention of new effective clinical applications.
Just a year or two ago, it was impossible to get complex results quickly, which changed people\'s attitude towards medical devices: It was fun, valuable, and stimulating creative innovation.
View this table: View inline View popupable1 project comparison summary for open-
Hardware sources for healthcare.
Medical devices need to be regulated, which can be time consuming and expensive, but still manageable for open medical devicessource project.
Crowdfunding is a way to centralize funds to apply for certification.
The open business model is successful.
SOURCE hardware makes it possible to invest as a commercial entity.
Finally, please note that when open-
Open source hardware does not use intellectual property protection patents, open-
SOURCE hardware companies typically use trademarks to protect their brands and ensure the quality level of the product.
Referee Pierce JM.
The value of open source hardware development.
2015 economic model; 6:1–11. doi:10. 4236/me. 2015.
61001OpenUrlCrossRef ↵ Chao TE, GN.
The impact of IP regulation on global medical technology innovation. BMJ Innov 2015; 1:49–50. doi:10. 1136/bmjinnov-2014-
000033 OpenUrlAbstract/free full text williams A, Gibb A, D per week
Research on hacker spirit: What does DIY mean for tangible interaction research.
ACM interaction 201219:14. doi:10. 1145/2090150.
2090156OpenUrl Doctorow C.
Information does not want to be free: Laws in the Internet age. McSweeney\'s. 2014.
Beer company von Oldenburg
Promote new health care technologies to an environment where resources are scarce.
Ann Biomed Eng 2013; 41:1841–50. doi:10. 1007/s10439-013-0750-
Richards-United States of America
Auden M. coltham
Equipment for low level
Resource health. Science 2013; 342:1055–7. doi:10. 1126/science.
Page 1243473 OpenUrlAbstract/free full Text Aufieri R, picohen, Paolillo.
Collaborative development of open source-
Appropriate Technology: ways to close the global access gap? BMJ Innov 2015; 1:37–8. doi:10. 1136/bmjinnov-2014-
000034 OpenUrlFREE full Text Wijnen B, Hunter EJ, Anzalone GC, etc. Open-
SOURCE syringe pump Library. PLoS ONE 2014; 9:e107216. ↵Van As R. Robohand.
Hansen T. Kuniholm
Take advantage of the larger market to encourage the innovation of artificial limbs: the design of MyOpen, an open photoelectric signal processor for video games and amateur robots.
Minutes of 2008 mec08 session. (
Visit August 2015).
Shared Design Alliance.
Open prosthetic program.
Open prosthetic program.
MyOpen GitHub repository. ↵Clark L.
Founder of open artificial limbs: challenges faced by open source medical devices.
Silva J. Heim W. , continent. A self-
Mechanical photography-
External-driven artificial limbs.
Rehabil 2005, arch physics medicine; 86:2066–70. doi:10. 1016/j. apmr. 2005. 03.
034 openurlcross pubpubmedweb of scienceSystem hands.
Make the future possible.
Arms without limbs2014. ↵The e-NABLE Project.
Help for the future. ↵3D Universe.
Hand of electronic RaptorNABLE—
Assembly material kit.
King DL, Babasola A, Rozario J, etc. Mobile open-source solar-powered 3-
D printers for non-distributed manufacturing
Grid community.
2014. challenges to sustainable development; 2:18–27. doi:10. 12. 924/cis2014.
Jansen P.
Open source CT scanner. Make 2014; 38:112.
Jansen P.
GitHub repository. ↵Jansen P.
Project for the tracker: OpenCT. ↵Inventables.
Flat pulley wheel kit. ↵Pololu.
Stepping Motor driver.
Instruments for image science.
Radioactive source↵Fechko A.
The reward system of dynamic pump. ↵OpenSCAD. ↵Niezen G. OpenPump.
Vincent CJ, Nisen G, Kane AA, etc.
Can standards and regulations keep up with health technology?
JMIR mHealth uHealth 2015; 3:e64. doi:10. 2196/mhealth.
Second, live 3918OpenUrlCrossRef ↵ Libelium Distribuidas S. L. e-
Health sensor platform v2.
Arduino and Raspberry Pi are 0. ↵OpenBCI.
Russell A, Orchard G, Raleigh C.
DIY blood pressure monitoringMake 2012; 20:70–7. OpenUrl shopdiabeto.
Diabeto hardware GitHub repository. ↵Nightscout.
Night Detective project↵Winchcombe K.
Build a virtual guide for xDrip.
Footnote stwitter follows Gerrit Niezen of @ gendorcontriators GN, and PE conceived the work.
This manuscript was written by GN, PE and HT.
The work was supported by the British Commission for Engineering and Physical Sciences (
Authorized Number EP/G059063).
Competing interests GN reports personal expenses from Tidepool
Profit Development-
SOURCE Software for type 1 diabetes, outside of the submission work.
There is nothing to reveal about PE and HT.
Uncommissioned source and peer review;
External peer review.
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