morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources — crop residue, wood, and solid waste
Our research shows that the particles produced by the burning of crop straw and apple wood are mainly organic matter (OM)
In the stuffy stage, and the soot-
OM is mixed with the inside of K during the combustion phase.
The grass burning in the burning stage released some Cl-rich-
Combustion of OM/soot particles and cardboard released by OM and S-rich particles.
Interestingly, particles from hard wood (
Pear wood and bamboo)and softwood (
Cypress and pine)
Combustion is mainly soot and OM in the combustion stage.
During the combustion phase, the combustion of foam boxes, rubber tires and plastic bottles/bags releases a large amount of soot mixed with a small amount of OM inside, while the burning of printed circuit boards and copper
Br-the core cable sends out a lot of OMRich in inclusions.
In addition, the printed circuit board Burns and releases toxic metals containing lead, zinc, tin and Sb.
These results are important for recording the properties of primary particles from combustion sources that can be used to track the source of environmental particles and to understand their potential effects on human health and radiation forcing in the air.
Aerosol particles play an important role in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, regional and global climate, and human health.
Atmospheric aerosol-both primary and secondary-comes from different human and natural sources.
Globally, emissions from burning of crop straw, wood and solid waste are important sources of primary and secondary aerosol particles.
A large amount of gas pollutants and carbon aerosol particles are released from crop residues and wood combustion, including non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs)
, CO, CO, CH, NO, NH, organic carbon (OC)
Elemental carbon (EC), and metals.
Combustion of solid waste, especially electronics and plastics, releases a large amount of organic particles (e. g.
Multi-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
And the compound of bromide), metals (e. g.
Iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, chromium, mercury and Cd)
And all kinds of toxic gases (e. g.
Toxic dioxin, fur).
Many studies have shown that these particles discharged directly from the burning of crop residues, wood and solid waste endanger human health and affect climate change by changing direct radiation forcing or acting as a cloud condensate (CCN)
Influence indirect radiation forcing.
In addition, the oxidation of gas pioneers further promotes the formation of secondary particles.
Crop straw and wood are widely used for home cooking and heating worldwide as renewable energy. Lanz, .
The report said that in various rural and urban sites throughout Central Europe, the contribution of residential wood burning to the quality of submicro organic aerosol is between 17% and 49%.
In China, straw burning often occurs after crop harvesting.
It is estimated that the annual crop residue production in China is about 600 Tg, of which about 140 Tg is burned. Qiu, .
Developed a high
List of resolution emissions of CO (1. 03u2009×u200910), CH (666), NO (536), NMVOC (1. 91u2009×u200910), SO (87), NH (138), PM (1. 45u2009×u200910), PM (2. 09u2009×u200910), OC (741), BC (137), and CO (2. 45u2009×u200910)
Open biomass combustion from China (
The value in parentheses, indicating the discharge load per species, in Gg per year). Liu, .
Reported that non
Fossil sources accounted for 62 ± 5% and 26 ± 8% of OC and EC quality in central China, respectively.
With population growth, economic development and rapid urbanization, the production of solid waste is also increasing. Christian, .
It is estimated that around 2000 tons/year of garbage have been produced globally, and about half of it has been burned, making it a major source of emissions that are generally overlooked globally.
Due to the lack of waste management services, especially in developing countries, a large amount of garbage has been burned on the roadside near residential areas, and in order to recycle metals, open-air burning of printed circuit boards often occurs in southeast China. Tian, .
The annual emission list of hazardous air pollutants burned by domestic garbage in China shows that a large number of toxic pollutants (e. g.
Sb, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd,-
Two British and multi-chlorine dibenzene)
Released into the atmosphere.
Although many studies have recently investigated emissions from burning of crop residues, wood and solid waste, they are mainly concentrated on the calculation of emission lists and the chemical composition of particulate matter.
In order to capture the full features of aerosol particles, various bulk methods (e. g.
Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS)
Ion Chromatography (IC))
Can be used to obtain the mass concentration and composition of particles emitted from different sources;
In addition, separate particle methods can further provide detailed information about their morphology and composition.
Pagels, for example ,.
Application of aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS)
Measure the chemical features of individual particles released by solid biofuel combustion.
However, information on the morphology and composition of individual primary particles emitted from these sources is limited, although many studies have well described the aging process of mixed states, morphology, and aerosol particles that make up the Chinese environment.
If we do not know the morphology, mixing state and composition of primary particles, we lack sufficient evidence to study the aging process of environmental particles.
In this study, 16 different materials (
It is divided into three categories: crop straw, wood and solid waste)
Burned in a residential stove in our lab.
Individual primary particles were collected during the combustion and combustion phases and analyzed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM)
Plus energy-dispersive X-
Ray Spectrometer (EDS).
Based on TEM observations and EDS spectra, we can reveal the morphology, composition and mixing states of individual primary particles directly emitted by different materials.